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Bioreactors are reactors that convert or produce materials using functions naturally endowed to living creatures. Reactors using immobilized enzymes, microorganisms, animal, or plant cells and those applying new methodologies such as genetic manipulation or cell fusion are typical bioreactors. Bioreactors differ from conventional reactors as living organisms present in the reactors operate under milder conditions of temperature and pressure. The ranges of operating conditions within bioreactors are usually determined by the biocatalyst (organism) and are usually small.

Membrane Bioreactor (MBR) systems essentially consists of combination of membrane and biological reactor systems. These systems are the emerging technologies, currently developed for a variety of advanced wastewater treatment processes